Scholars have thought about the impact of gender and race on Black women and girls for several decades. Many theoretical frameworks and scholarly writings have examined the issue (Cole, 2009; Collins, 1990; Giddings, 1985; Hooks, 1981). However, the empirical research on race, gender norms and Black girls is still in its infancy. There is a small but growing body of empiri- cal research specifically devoted to Black girls and gender norms, which the authors sincerely hope will continue growing. However, there are a wealth of studies that employ racially diverse, multi-ethnic samples that include Black girls in significant numbers. Given the limitations of the empirical research base, this report focuses on three problem areas where the research base on the impact of feminine gender norms is both broad and well-accepted:
- Basic health and wellness;
- Reproductive and sexual health, including teen pregnancy and STIs;
- Intimate relationships (including partner violence).